YII PROJECT BLUEPRINTS PDF

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Source code for Yii Project Blueprints by Charles R. Portwood II - Yii Project Blueprints. The Yii framework is a high-performance, fast, open source, and a rapid development PHP framework that can be used to develop modern web. Download Yii Project norinkgibipen.gq, Size: MB, File name: Yii Project norinkgibipen.gq, Uploaded: TZ.


Yii Project Blueprints Pdf

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In the next chapter, we'll expand our mastery of Yii by learning how to use and write migrations, how to use database access objects DAO , and how to use Yii's built-in Query Builder. In this chapter, we'll cover how to connect to different databases, write database migrations to instantiate our databases, use database access objects DAO , and use Yii2's built-in Query Builder.

We'll also cover the basics of powerful tools such as data providers and data widgets as well as how to use Yii2 to replicate and load balance access to our databases. Through this class, we can connect to a variety of different database types, ranging from local SQLite databases to clustered MySQL databases. The simplest way to establish a connection to a database is to create a SQLite database connection, as follows: We can keep our application DRY by putting our database coniguration into the db component of our web or console coniguration ile.

As an example, establishing a SQLite connection in this ile will be done as follows: Furthermore, since Yii2 loads components only when required, it can keep our application lean and performant. In Yii2, components are only loaded when required. This process is often called lazy loading. Unless a component is preloaded, Yii2 will not create an instance of that component until it is irst used.

After being initially instantiated, Yii will then reuse the same component across your application rather than creating multiple instances of that component.

Lazy loading is one of the primary reasons Yii is so performant. With our database coniguration stored within our coniguration ile, we can now access the database connection, as follows: As stated earlier, Yii2 can connect to several different database types.

A few examples of the data source names DSNs that Yii2 supports are listed here: More information on these base drivers can be found within the PHP manual at https: More information on this driver can be found in the PHP manual at https: Note that Yii2 will not be able to connect to any database unless the appropriate PHP drivers are properly installed and conigured.

If you aren't certain which drivers you have installed, the native phpinfo function can output a list of all the currently installed PHP extensions.

Within the db component, simply specify the username and password attributes that are appropriate for your database. Additional coniguration options In addition to the basic db component options listed previously, Yii2 also provides several additional options that can be used to either enhance the performance of your application or deal with a known issue within the native PHP drivers.

While many of these options can be found in the Yii guide and the API documentation, some of them will most likely be used more often than others. By default, Yii2 will try to use the native prepare support built into the native PDO driver. To improve the performance of our application, we can set this value to true and allow Yii to cache commonly executed queries.

In an application that mostly performs read actions, enabling this attribute can greatly increase the performance of your application.

that help you master the framework

To completely enable this component, however, the additional properties we'll mention now must be set as well. If unset, this will simply default to the cache component in our application. By default, the query cache will be valid for 3, seconds, or 60 minutes: Before Yii accesses the database, it will often need to determine the database schema.

This schema information is used to assist Yii when running validators and working with relational models, such as related Active Record models. Any change to the underlying data or schema in your database may cause your application to return bad data or crash entirely. Writing database migrations When building and maintaining modern web applications, the underlying structure of our database may need to change to account for changes in requirements or scopes.

To ensure that our database schema can evolve in tandem with our source code, Yii2 provides built-in support to manage database migrations.

Using database migrations, we can treat our database as an extension of the source code and easily change it when our source code changes. When paired properly, we can often write our migrations in a way that enables them to be run across a variety of database types. For example, when working locally, we might need to use a local SQLite database even if our application will ultimately run on a MySQL database.

At the heart of this class is a variety of different schema types that Yii2 will be able to properly map to the appropriate data type within our database. For a complete list of the available constants made available by the Schema class, ensure that you refer to the Yii2 guide at http: Within our migrations, we can call any of these constants by running this: Using the source code from the previous chapter as a starting point, we'll do this by running the following from the command line: Depending upon the ile permissions on your system, Yii2 may not be able to create the migrations folder if it does not exist.

When running migrations, Yii2 will execute them in the order in which they were created. Because of this naming convention, any migration that you create will have a distinct and unique ilename. If you're following along, ensure that you're working in the ile that was created from the. These two operations correspond to one of four functions: The up and down methods are the base methods required to run migrations and will execute any database command issued inside them even if there is an error.

Alternatively, we can use the safeUp and safeDown methods, which are functionally identical to the up and down methods, with the exception that the entire operation is wrapped within a transaction.

If our database supports transactions, running our migrations from the safe methods can help us catch migration errors at runtime before an error can cause problems with our entire database. Because of the additional safety they offer, safeUp and safeDown should be our go-to methods when writing migrations. Additionally, if safeUp or safeDown are used, the unsafe methods cannot be used. We'll start by simply storing an ID, an email address, a password, the username, and some timestamp metadata indicating when our user was created and last updated.

Within our migration, we can write this as follows: We can either directly use the constants deined by the Schema class, or we can use the native migration methods, such as primaryKey , integer , string , and text. Using the migration methods is preferred because it permits us to add additional attributes to our column, such as the column size and length.

For a complete list of methods offered by the migration class, refer to the Yii2 guide at http: In the previous example, we outlined two methods: While Yii2 is smart enough to work with any ield names you specify, following this convention will make your code more readable and working with your databases less complicated.

While you don't have to explicitly follow this convention, following a convention can save you a lot of time in the future. Running migrations Running our migrations can be done through the yii command, as shown in the previous chapter: Using the sqlite command-line tool, we can explore our SQLite database: By running the. The second table, user, shows the resulting schema that was created by Yii from our migration class.

While database migrations are suited for most database changes, running them against large datasets may result in your database being unavailable to your application, resulting in downtime. Make sure that before you run a database migration through Yii2, your application should be able to handle temporary downtime.

If even temporary downtime is not appropriate for your application, you may need to consider migrating your data to an updated schema in other ways.

In this instance, we want to change our migrations without causing harm to their local instance; we can create new migrations that users of our code can apply in order to bring their applications up to date. We may also want to make a few changes to other ields, such as our email ield, to prevent them from being NULL. We can do this by writing a new migration and altering the schema of the database itself. We'll start by creating a new migration: In the same vein, addColumn will add a new column with the speciied name and schema to our database, alterColumn will alter the schema for the named column, and createIndex will create a unique index on the email ield in our database, which will ensure that no two users will share the same email address.

If we try to run these migrations against our SQLite database, however, we would be presented with an error similar to the following, indicating that SQLite doesn't have support for these methods: Since we're using SQLite, however, we'd have to rewrite our initial migration command and notify users of our application about the change. Consequently, if we need to query data within a migration, we will need to use Yii2's Query Builder to do this, which we'll cover later in this chapter.

If our application has widespread adoption, it might be better to query for all of our users with Query Builder and store them temporarily in the memory or a temporary store if we have a large number of records. Then, after creating our new table schema for our users table, we could then reinsert them into our database using the insert method.

After updating our new migration, we can rerun our migration command. Take a look at the Yii2 documentation at http: Database access objects Yii database access objects, commonly referred to as DAO, provide a powerful object-oriented API to work with a relational database. Consequently, it is signiicantly more performant to work with DAO statements than it is to work with either Active Record or Query Builder.

Since our db component is already properly conigured for SQLite, we'll use it moving forward. With DAO, there are two general types of queries that we can run: Querying for data The irst way in which we can use DAO is to query for data.

There are four main methods that are used to query for data: Using our user table as an example, we can query for all the users in our database by running the following command: In the event that no data is found, this method will return false: For instance, if we want to count the number of users in our database, we can use queryScalar to get the value: The inal method, queryColumn , is used to query a speciic column in our database.

For instance, if we want to know the email addresses of all the users in our database, we can use queryAll to fetch all that data, or we can use queryColumn , which would be signiicantly more eficient to use as it would query for less data: With our knowledge of these methods, as an exercise, let's go back to our previous migrations and rewrite them to preserve our users across our schema change: First, let's roll back our migrations to properly simulate the scenario: Next, let's seed our database with some test data: If we take a look at our database, we'll see that the initial schema and data is now in place.

The new code blocks have been highlighted for easy viewing: Now we can rerun our migration. If successful, we should see our original migration run and an insert call executed for each user in our database. Finally, we can query our SQLite database to preview the updated schema and see our updated users: Quoting table and column names When writing database-agnostic SQL queries, properly quoting ield names can be problematic.

To avoid this problem, Yii2 provides the ability to automatically quote table and column names for you using the correct quoting rule for the speciic database in use.

To automatically quote a column name, simply enclose the column name in square brackets: To execute these commands, we can use the execute method in general: Yii2 also provides convenient wrappers for insert , update , and delete , which enables us to write commands without having to write raw SQL. These methods properly escape and quote table and column names and bind parameters on your behalf.

For instance, we can insert a new user into a database as follows: We can also delete a user in our database using the delete method: Parameter binding The number one rule when working with user-submitted data is to never trust user-submitted data.

Any data that passes through our databases and has come from an end user needs to be validated, sanitized, and properly bound to our statements before they are executed against our database. To help protect against SQL injection, Yii2 offers several different ways to bind parameters to our queries in a way that will ilter our injected SQL.

These three methods are bindValue , bindValues , and bindParam. The irst method, bindValue , is used to bind a single parameter to a token within our SQL statement. For example, we can rewrite the previous query as follows: Following the previous example, we can write the following to update multiple users without having to rewrite our query each time: This will protect you against future changes to your code.

Transactions When running multiple queries in a sequence, we often want to ensure that our database state remains consistent across these queries. Most modern databases support the use of transactions to accomplish this. In a transaction, changes are written to the database in such a way that they can be committed if everything went well or rolled back without consequence if any given query within the transaction failed.

In Yii2, this looks as follows: Yii's Query Builder allows us to write database-agnostic queries in a programmatic way.

Consequently, queries written through the Query Builder are signiicantly more readable than their DAO counterparts. For example, we could simply query for all the users in our database in Query Builder using the following code: Query construction methods The basics of Query Builder involve the chaining of multiple query methods together.

These method names directly correspond with the SQL segment that they are named after. When working with Query Builder, the most common methods that you'll use will be the select , from , and where methods.

For instance, the following queries are identical: If you choose to list the column names as a string, ensure that you do that consistently throughout your application. In the following examples, we'll use the array format. The select method also supports column aliases and table preixes, as shown in the next example: For instance, if we want to retrieve the user's complete name as a single ield, we can execute the following query: For instance, if we want to list all the irst names of our user's database, we can execute the following query: The from method Our previous examples have already illustrated the basic usage of the from method.

The from method can also be used to specify a table alias, as shown in the following example: The where method The where method speciies the where segment of our SQL query and can be used either in a string format, hash format, or operator format. The string format The string format of the where method should always be chained with the addParams method in order to prevent SQL injection: Rather than passing a string as a parameter, we can instead pass an array of key values representing the column name and value.

For example, we can ind all the users in our database with the irst name of John who were in their 20s and who didn't have a listed pet name by running the following query: We will have to adjust our schema with a migration to add these ields to our database.

This would result in the following query: The operator format The last way to use the where method is to use the operator format.

In general, the operator format takes the following format: As you can imagine, the where method can quickly become very bulky and complicated. Rather than using the operator, you may ind your code more readable by using the andWhere or orWhere methods to chain multiple conditions together: For example, to sort all of our users in our database by age, we can construct the following query: When properly used together, these two methods form the basics of paginating through results: Yii2 supports these methods via the groupBy and having methods.

After grouping our results with groupBy , we can then ilter our results with the having method, which behaves the same as the where method. The following example will only show the number of users in our dataset who are over a speciied age: Joins and unions can be performed through query builder using the join and union methods. The join method has the following method syntax: For example, suppose we had a posts and users table. We could join them as follows using the join method: The result would include all users joined with all the posts that they owned.

Joins can also be performed by type using the shortcut methods rightJoin , leftJoin , and innerJoin. Yii2 provides the following query methods to execute queries built with Query Builder. Most of the times when working with Query Builder, we'll want to fetch all the records in our database. Carefully consider using the all method if you have a large dataset, as the resulting query execution could take a long time to complete, and it could either hang or cause an error in your application.

In other instances, it may be more beneicial just to fetch the irst row of a query. To fetch the irst row, we can use the one method: To achieve this, we can use the exists method, which will return either true or false, indicating that data would be returned from the resulting query. To fetch scalar values with query builder, we can use the scalar method. For instance, if we want to know how old the oldest user is in our database using the MAX SQL method, we can use the following code to return an integer representing their age: To fetch the irst row of our results, we can use the column method: Consequently, an array of all IDs in our database will be returned.

It's important to remember when querying for data that you only query for the data you need. If you need all data, you query for it in iterative way such as to limit the memory required for each query. To keep the memory consumption low and to prevent our application from hanging, we can use either the batch or each method. By default, both methods will fetch rows from the database. To change the number of rows to be fetched, simply change the irst parameter of each method: Think of this method as a query appended with a limit and an offset parameter, which will restrict the number of returned rows.

Each iteration of the batch query will contain multiple results. Like the batch method, the each method can be used to reduce memory consumption as well, but it will iterate over the query row-by-row instead, which means that each iteration of the method will result in a single instance of our data. The beneit of using data providers and data widgets over queries built via Query Builder is that they provide an interface to automatically deal with sorting and pagination.

Active data providers can also be populated through Query Builder, as shown in the following example: For more information on these data providers, check out the Yii2 guide at http: Once we have fetched our data with a data provider, we can pass the resulting data to a data widget. Data widgets in Yii2 are reusable building blocks used within views to create complex interfaces to interact with data.

In some instances, there may be sensitive data that we don't want to display on this page. Alternatively, there could simply be too much data to display in GridView. To restrict the number of ields to display in our GridView widget, we can use the columns attribute: More information on output data widgets can be found in the Yii2 guide at http: While some widgets, such as GridView, allow us to work with and display multiple rows, we can also use data providers and data widgets to display information for a single row.

With the DetailView widget, we can dynamically conigure a simple interface to display the information for a particular user in our database.

The getModels method of our data provider splits our data provider into individual models that our DetailView widget can understand: This will be displayed on our screen: In addition to simply displaying results from a database, the DetailView widget also supports the custom formatting of certain rows.

More information on the formatter can be found at http: When working with large systems, we will split our database into a read-and-write master and a read-only slave of a set of slaves. Typically, our applications are unaware of our database architecture, which can introduce problems when required to migrate from a new master. With Yii2, we can conigure our database connection to not only be aware of our master-slave database coniguration, but also intelligently handle slave unavailability.

In Yii2, we can conigure a single master and multiple slaves using the following database coniguration. This will result in all writes going to our declared master and all reads going to one of our declared slaves: When working with slaves, Yii will attempt to connect to slaves in the list until a slave responds and load balance queries against each of the available slaves. By setting PDO:: Alternatively, using the following coniguration, we can conigure our application to work with both multiple masters and multiple slaves.

When using multiple masters, Yii will execute writes against any available master and will load balance writes between the available masters: When working with a master-slave topology, we may want to issue a read query against one of our masters. To do that, we would need to explicitly tell Yii2 to run our query against our master rather than our slaves: If we need to issue a transaction against a slave, we will need to explicitly begin the transaction on a slave, as follows: By working with database access objects, we showed how we can execute raw SQL statements to run against our database and how we can use transactions to protect our database integrity.

We also illustrated the use of Query Builder, which can enable us to write database-agnostic queries in a programmatic way. We then discovered how we can use Query Builder to construct intelligent data providers, which are used to supply data to reusable data widgets. Finally, we learned how to conigure Yii2 to be aware of master-slave and multi-master database cluster conigurations and how to load balance between these connections.

In the next chapter, we discover the capstone of working with databases in Yii2—Active Record—which is a powerful tool used to work with our data and model our database structure.

We'll also dive into Active Records relatives, basic models, and forms, and we'll learn how we can use a powerful tool called Gii to automate the construction of much of the code our modern applications will work with. These classes enable us to abstract our data management code away from DAO and Query Builder and into an easy-to-use programmatic interface.

In this chapter, we'll cover the use and implementation of Active Record and learn how to create data models and custom forms. We'll also cover how to conigure a powerful code generation tool called Gii to automate the creation of Active Record models and forms. Coniguring Gii While Active Record models and forms can be generated by hand, in most cases, we'll want to automate the creation of this code. To achieve this, Yii2 provides a code generation tool called Gii, which can be executed both from the command line and from a web interface in order to create Active Record models that work with our database structure and forms that work with both our base models and Active Record models.

In Yii2, nearly every module is available as a separate Composer package, which can be installed from the command-line interface. Consequently, we must use Composer to include Gii in our application. Since Gii is available as a composer package, we can include it in our application by running the following command from our command line: Typically, during our deployment process, we'll use the --no-dev lag to ensure that development packages are not deployed to our production environment.

With Gii installed, we now need to conigure it to work with both the Yii2 console and within our web browser. While this basic coniguration will properly load the Gii module, it doesn't follow our convention of being aware of our environment.

For instance, if we went to production with this coniguration and deployed it with composer install --no- dev, as described earlier, our application would crash because Composer would not have installed the Gii module in our vendor folder. Define in. Gii for console applications Unlike Yii1, Gii for Yii2 provides a new interface to work with Gii on the command line.

What You Will Learn

With Yii2, we can now generate the source code for Active Record models, forms, and even extensions all from our command-line interface. As we move through the rest of the chapter, we'll cover how to use Gii from the web interface as well as the console interface. Active Record One of the most important tasks when building rich web applications is ensuring that we properly model and represent our data in code.

From a simple blog site to an application as big as Twitter, data modeling and representation are vital to ensuring that our application is easy to work with and can grow as required.

The Active Record pattern Named by Martin Fowler in his book Patterns of Enterprise Application Architecture, the Active Record pattern is an object-relational mapping ORM pattern that's used to represent database rows and columns within an object. In the Active Record pattern, each database column is represented by a single Active Record class. Upon instantiation, that object then provides a simple interface to manage individual rows or a collection of rows within our code. New rows can be created, old ones can be deleted, and existing rows can be updated—all within a simple and consistent API.

Active Record also enables us to programmatically reference and interact with related data, which is usually represented in our database by foreign key relations. In this section, we'll cover how to create new Active Record classes, how to implement them within our code, and some common pitfalls of working with Active Record. Before we start working with Active Record, we irst need to create a couple of tables that we can work with. Included with the project resources for this chapter is a base migration that will create several new tables and populate them with some sample data: In Yii2, app is a predeined alias that points to our application base path.

If we want to, we can declare additional aliases, such as frontend and backend, to divide our application into different sections, which would enable us to create multiple Active Record instances in different namespaces.

Finally, we need to implement the static method tableName within our class, which deines the table name our Active Record model will use. Since our Active Record model will use the user table, we will deine this method as follows: Using Gii to create our Active Record classes has several advantages: From this page, we can generate Active Record classes based upon our database schema.

As an example, let's create an active record instance for our user table: First, we need to populate the Table name ield with user, the name of the user table in our database.

As you type, Gii will try to show you possible database tables that match our text entry, which can be extremely beneicial when working with large databases. Next, we need to either press the Tab key on our keyboard, or focus our mouse onto the Model name ield, which should autopopulate the ield with User, which will be the name of the class that Gii will generate.

Then, we need to ensure that the Generate Relations checkbox is selected. This will automatically add the required code to our class in order to generate our model relations for the Post and Role classes, which we'll create in the next section. After checking this box, our form should be illed as follows: Then, we can click on the Preview button at the bottom of the page, which will enable us to preview the code that Gii will generate for us before we conirm the creation of our class.

In our Linux environment, this can be done by adding the www-data group to the folder and adjusting the permissions so that the user can write to it: Just ensure that you readjust the permissions to something more reasonable after using Gii to create the model. All of these ields are conigurable within the Gii web interface for us to change. Using Gii's console interface As an alternative to Gii's web interface, Gii can generate Active Record classes from the command line.

When running Gii from the command line, we simply need to provide two attributes: This takes the following form: As shown in the previous code block, it has marked both the email and password attributes as required and the email ield as unique, and it has correctly identiied the appropriate data types for our name ields as well as timestamps. Adding custom validators In addition to the many built-in core validators Yii2 has, we may need to write our own custom validators for our classes.

Custom validators can either be written inline using anonymous functions, or they can be written as a separate method within our class. For instance, suppose we only want to permit changes to our user information between certain core hours of our business. As an anonymous function, this can be written as follows: However, if we want to alter the error message for a certain property, we can do that by specifying the message parameter for a speciic validator.

For instance, we can adjust the error message for our unique validator by changing the last line of our validator to the following: As shown in the previous example, this takes the following form: This method will return an array of errors containing an array of error messages applicable for each attribute: While this can be done manually in our controller, it is typically executed before the save method is executed.

The validator method will return either true or false, indicating whether the validation was successful or not. Model attribute labels The next method that Gii automatically implements for us is the attributeLabels method.

Agile Web Application Development with Yii1.1 and PHP5

The attributesLabels method enables us to name our model attributes with more descriptive names that we can use as form labels. By default, Gii will automatically generate labels for us based upon our column names.

Furthermore, by following the convention of using underscores in our column names in our user table, Gii has automatically created titleized and readable attribute labels for us: We'll cover the Yii:: Active Record relationships Assuming that we conigured our database schema properly with primary and foreign keys, Yii2 will also generate model relationships for us. Our User model illustrates this for the Post and Role relationships: For instance, if we want to retrieve the name of the role for a user we are working with, we can simply execute the following: Check whether your relationships map to the correct classes and have the correct relationship types before executing your code.

Using multiple database connections with Active Record By default, all active record instances will use the db component to connect to our database. In the instance where we have multiple databases connected to our application, we can conigure active record to work with an alternate database by deining the static method getDb within our Active Record class: To use a behavior with an Active Record class in Yii2, we simply need to specify that we want to use the behavior class at the top of our PHP ile and then add the behavior to the behaviors method of our model.

Like most things in Yii2, this is completely conigurable. Working with Active Record Now that we have learned what Gii automatically provides for us when creating new Active Record classes and what additional options we can add to our classes to enhance them, let's take a look at how we can use active record instances to perform basic create, read, update, and delete CRUD actions. Both methods accept a scalar argument, an array of scalar arguments, or an array of associative pairs to query data: One way to get around this limitation is to convert our resulting data into an array format using the asArray method: While the asArray method can be used to increase the performance of large queries, it has several downsides.

The data returned will not be an instance of Active Record, and thus, it will not have any of the methods or helpful attributes associated with it. Moreover, since data is being returned directly from PDO, the data will not be typecast automatically and will be returned as a string instead.

Data access When using Active Record, each row from our database query will generate a single Active Record instance. The column values from our Active Record instance can be accessed via the model attributes for that Active Record instance: For instance, to retrieve the author's name from a given post, we can run the following code: If having Active Record attributes with underscores doesn't match your coding style, you should rename your column names.

Our data can also be manipulated by creating a custom getter and setter method within our Active Record class. For instance, if we want to display the user's complete name without changing our database schema, we can add the following method to our User Active Record class: If we retrieved our user information from the database again, we would see that the results were stored: Typically when using the load method, we'll provide data from a form submission, which we'll cover later in this chapter.

The post method represents any data submitted via a POST request. Creating new records Creating new records in our database can be done by instantiating a new instance of an active record class using the new keyword, populating the model with data, and then calling the save method on the model.

The delete method will permanently delete data from the database and will return true if the deletion was successful or false if an error occurred.

A mistake in the conditional can result in an entire table being truncated. Active Record events As an alternative to creating before and after method handlers such as beforeSave and afterDelete , Yii2 supports several different events that our application can listen to. The events that Active Record supports are outlined in the following table: For instance, if we want to create a model called UserForm to collect user information, we can write the following class: Calling unset on the class or creating a new instance of the class will not grant user the access to the data stored in other instance of the model.

Since our model attributes are public properties of our PHP class, we can access them like any public property. Scenarios When working with models or active record classes, we may want to reuse the same model for different situations, such as logging in a user or registering a user. To help us write less code, Yii2 provides the scenarios method to deine what business logic and validation rules should be executed for each scenario.

By default, scenarios are determined by our validation rules using the on property in our validation rules: The default scenario marks all model attributes as active for both mass assignment and model validation.

When working with models and active record instances, this is the preferred way to generate forms. Generating forms with Gii Like Active Record classes, forms can be generated automatically for us from both the web Gii tool and the console Gii tool. Let's take a look at generating a form for authentication, which we'll call LoginForm, and a form to handle registration, which we'll call RegisterForm. For forms, we only need to know the view name which will translate to the ilename and the model class.

Since we want to use our form just to log in, we should also specify that we want to use the login scenario. When specifying the model class, we need to specify both the namespace and the class so that Yii can ind our class. Once we have speciied all the necessary attributes, we can click on the Preview button to preview our form, and then we can click on the Generate button to generate the source code. To pass a backslash character to Gii, we need to escape the backslash character with a second backslash.

Here's the output: Our resulting RegisterForm view will look as follows: Remember to use the help tool to discover other command-line arguments for additional customization. Using forms Now that we've created our forms, let's take a brief look at how exactly they work.

In most cases, this is going to be deined in our controller and then passed down to our view: In Yii2, generated forms are intended to be rendered as a partial view rather than a complete view. Rather than specifying our form, LoginForm, directly in our controller, we will pass our model down to a parent view, which will then render our form. As an example, our login action within our controller will change to the following: Instead, it has two separate render methods: Chapter 8, Routing, Responses, and Events, will help us gain a better understanding of how routing works in Yii2 and how we can easily igure out which controller actions match to which view actions.

ActiveForm and input types Now that we know how to render our form, let's break down our form view. Since view iles and controllers are separated in Yii2, we need to irst make sure that we use our active form class in our view ile: To customize these, we can provide an array of arguments to our begin method to manually specify these attributes: Since the method is chainable, we can chain additional attributes onto our form.

For instance, if we want to add client-side validation for our email ield so that our browsers can verify our text ield was an email address, we can chain the following: We covered how to properly set up and conigure Gii, the code generation tool for Yii2. We then covered how we can automatically create Active Record classes based upon our database schema using both the web and console interface for Gii in addition to many of the common methods and properties we can bind to our Active Record classes, such as validation rules, attribute labels, and behaviors.

Next, we covered how to create basic models that do not depend upon our database and how to add scenarios to our models and Active Record classes. We inally covered how we can use the Gii tool to create HTML forms based upon our models and explored some of the functionality that comes with the ActiveForm class.

In the next chapter, we are going to expand our knowledge of the available helpers and widgets that come with Yii2.

Agile Web Application Development with Yii1.1 and PHP5

We will also dive into modules in Yii2 and explore how we can use them to create reusable self-contained applications that we will keep building upon throughout the book. As we move forward, we are going to build upon much of the knowledge we have gained thus far. Before moving forward, ensure that you review the classes and information we have learned about. Yii2 also provides us with the ability to build and include mini applications known as modules that can enable us to rapidly add new features to our application while maintaining a clear separation of concerns in our main application and any extended functionality.

In this chapter, we'll cover the basics of building and working with modules within our application. We'll also cover several of Yii2's built-in widgets and helpers and learn how we can implement our own custom widgets. Modules In Yii2, modules are considered to be mini self-contained software packages containing the complete MVC stack. When paired with an application, modules provide a way to extend applications by adding new features and tools without adding code to our main code base.

Consequently, modules are a great way to create and reuse code. When creating applications with Yii2, you'll most likely work with prebuilt models, such as Gii or the Yii2 dev module; however, modules can also be custom applications created speciically to build upon and separate code for a speciic purpose.

In this section, we'll go over the basic modules in Yii2 as well as cover how to create and implement them within our application. At their core, they still consist of the same structure and share many of the same ideas. In Yii2, modules are stored in the modules directory of our application root and are registered with our application through our web or console coniguration iles. If we were to break down a basic module, its directory structure and core iles would be as follows: Consequently, any controller within the module, unless otherwise registered with our URL manager, will be available as a dedicated controller route within the module itself.

For example, the DefaultController. Additionally, modules provide full support for the basic MVC architecture within Yii2. Each module may have its own set of models, views, controllers, and even components. Like complete applications, modules also have support for their own views and layouts, allowing them to be styled and managed differently than our main application. As part of a Yii2 application, they also have complete access to the models and classes implemented within our main application.

The module class structure The most important part of a module is the module class deined in the Module. Additionally, custom conigurations can be registered to our module using the Yii:: This coniguration can be a simple key-value pair, or it can be a complete coniguration ile, such as those used in our web and console coniguration iles.

The Yii2 coniguration syntax can be explored in detail in the Yii2 guide located at http: For instance, if we have a controller to handle users called UserController, we can make our default route map to our controller, as follows: Remember that unless otherwise speciied, controllers will always be available in their named URI. To get started with rendering our view, we irst need to deine which layout we want to use.

Portwood Charles R. II. Yii Project Blueprints

For more information on these methods, refer to the layout section of the Yii2 documentation at http: After deining our layout, we'll need to deine the view ile for our DefaultContro ller:: For now, let's simply add the following to this view ile: Hello World! Any key- value pair will populate the public property of the speciied class with the value listed in the array. Dynamically registering modules Often when working with large projects, several components will be broken down into modules that need to be registered with our application.

Moreover, there may be circumstances where only certain modules need to be registered at a given time. One way to automate the process of registering many different modules at once is to create a dynamic coniguration script and let our application scan our modules for us. First, we'll want to set the directory that we want to scan as well as try to load a precached coniguration ile, should one exist.

Then, we'll try to return our cached coniguration ile, should it exist. Finally, we generate a cached version of our generated coniguration ile to eliminate duplicate work on each request. Bootstrapping modules Some modules, such as the debug module, need to be executed on every request when enabled.

To ensure that these modules run on every request, we can Bootstrap them by adding them to the Bootstrap section of our coniguration ile. If you're familiar with Yii1, the bootstrap option is used in a manner similar to the Yii1 preload coniguration option: The Bootstrap parameter of our coniguration option will ensure that Yii2 will autoload and register the object early on in the execution low rather than waiting until the class it requires.

Be careful with adding items to the bootstrap section, however, as forcing Yii2 to register objects before they're needed can introduce performance degradation into your application. Accessing modules When working with modules, you may need to get the instance of the currently running module to either access the module ID and parameters or components associated to the module. To retrieve the current active instance of a module, you can use the getInstance method on the module class directly: Using Composer and semantic versioning, we can manage our modules such that they are versioned to speciic points in time in our application while still enabling developers to work with us.

Moreover, we can also conigure our main project to automatically install modules for us on deployment, which can drastically reduce the overhead involved in managing modules: To get started with managing our modules with Composer, we irst need to move our module source code out of our main application and push it to our DCVS repository. Next, we need to create a composer. Portwood II", "homepage": To automatically install modules to our modules directory, we need to explicitly declare the type of our Composer package.

The composer-installers project does not support Yii- specific modules currently; however, for our purpose, the drupal-module type does what we need. Next, we'll need to make some changes to our main projects' composer.

The irst change we need to make is the inclusion of the composer- installers dependency. We can do this by adding the following to the require block of our composer. The second change we need to make to our main project's composer. We can do this by creating a repositories block populated with the DCVS information for our module repository and then adding the module to our require block: Then, we need to add the installation information to the extras section of our composer.

This provides the required information to the composer- installers package: Then, we'll want to ensure that our module directory is excluded from our DCVS repository. We can do this adding a.

Finally, we can run Composer to update and automatically install our module: During deployments, however, you should semantically version your module so that the versioned copy of the module is downloaded rather than cloned. Our module has now been installed from Composer. Modules in summary Modules are best used in large applications where certain features or reusable components need to be created. As we've shown in this section, modules are extremely powerful and can be used to extend our application.

Widgets In Yii2, widgets are reuseable code blocks that are used in views to add conigurable user interface logic to our application in an object-oriented way. Yii2 comes with several different types of reusable widgets, some of which we have already seen in previous chapters. Custom widgets can also be created to create tools that can be reused across multiple projects. In this section, we'll go over the basic types of widgets, how to use them, and how to implement our own within our applications.

In Yii2, widgets can be used in one of two distinct ways. This method takes a coniguration array as an option and returns a rendered widget as a result. Using our previous example, this will look as follows: Commonly used built-in widgets To help quickly develop applications, Yii2 comes with several powerful widgets built in that we can use to jumpstart development.

Bootstrap widgets One of the main widget types Yii2 provides is speciic to Twitter Bootstrap 3 styles and provides a quick and easy way to add a functionality to our application. However, this can be optimized by including the core Bootstrap assets within our application's asset manager, AppAsset.

These core widgets are as follows: More information on Twitter Bootstrap 3 can be found at http: Support for jQuery UI widgets can be added to our application by including the yii2-jui Composer package in our application: More information on jQuery UI can be found at https: Yii-speciic widgets Yii2 comes with support for familiar Yii1 widgets such as ActiveForm and GridView, both of which we explored in previous chapters.

MaskedInput An input widget used to force users to enter properly formatted data Menu A widget used to display a Yii menu Spaceless A widget to remove whitespace characters between HTML tags Several online projects also exist to extend Yii2's widget collection.

Before trying to implement your own widget, try to search Yii2's extensions to see whether someone might have already implemented what you need.

Creating custom widgets In some instances, it may make more sense to create our own widget to handle a speciic task. For instance, suppose we want to create a widget that displays a greeting with the user's name depending upon the time of the day. We can create that widget by implementing the following: As an illustration, let's create a widget that outputs whatever is wrapped within a begin and end tag in an HTML div element.

We can write this class as follows: In Yii2, widgets have native support for the render method, allowing us to render view iles. A summary of widgets Widgets are powerful object-oriented reusable code blocks that we can add to our views to quickly and easily add additional functionality to our application.

As self-contained objects, widgets follow the MVC pattern and handle dependency management for any and all assets and external scripts required for the widget to function. In this section, we'll go over several of the more common helpers. Comprehensive documentation for all helpers Yii2 supports can be found on the Yii2 API documentation page underneath the helpers section at http: To retrieve the home URL of your application, use the home static method.

Several different arguments can be passed to get different types of URLs: The URL helper can also be used to generate routes to other parts of your application using the toRoute and to method. In general, the toRoute method takes the following form: The to method is identical to the toRoute method, except that it always expects an array rather than a string: When passed without arguments, the current URL will be returned.

Any array arguments passed to the method will generate the current URL with its parameters: In general, HTML tags can be generated by calling the tag method, as follows: Any piece of data submitted by the end user should be wrapped within the encode method to prevent XSS injection.

The addCssClass method can work with either a string or an array deinition of a class, and it will not add a class if it already exists: A complete method list is available at http: It's recommended when using Yii that you use this class instead of the native PHP functions.

VarDumper can be used as follows: Several examples of inlector are provided as follows: To search for iles in a given directory, we can use FileHelper, as follows: With the ind iles method, we can specify the ile type we want to have or exclude: To disable this behavior, we can set the recursive attribute to false: We irst covered the basics of a module, its MVC structure, and how to integrate it into our main application.With our knowledge of these methods, as an exercise, let's go back to our previous migrations and rewrite them to preserve our users across our schema change: Game Dev.

Aliases can be deined in several ways. When specifying the model class, we need to specify both the namespace and the class so that Yii can ind our class. Mastering Yii Framework 2.